Best Time of Day to Exercise

Many people often wonder when the best time of day is to workout. This answer can change based on who you talk to.  Some people swear by morning workouts, while other swear by evening workouts. The short answer? Well, it depends.

A recent news story pointed out the morning as the best time to exercise. This is because exercising at night can interrupt sleep cycles. There is some truth to this statement. Exercising within 2 to 3 hours of bed time can affect a person’s sleep, because of the increased release of hormones from the workout. However, this all depends on the type of workout. An evening session of yoga or pilates can help to reduce stress and ease the mind. Further still, the National Sleep Foundation performed a “Sleep in America” poll in 2013 which found that an overwhelming majority of people slept better if they exercise period. The time of day did not matter.

Depending on your goal, morning exercise can also be advantageous. For people looking to decrease body fat, low intensity morning exercise on an empty stomach may help. Because the body is low on carbohydrate stores, it must mobilize fat stores to provide the body with energy. This may help to reduce body fat. Cortisol levels are also highest in the morning. A morning exercise routine can help to reduce these levels over time, resulting in decreased weight gain and even weight loss.

However, for people looking to increase muscle mass, afternoon or evening exercise may be best. Between 3-7pm, cortisol levels are at their lowest and testosterone levels are at their highest. Cortisol has a catabolic effect on muscle, resulting in it’s breakdown, where as testosterone has the opposite effect. So it would make sense to strength train when muscle building potential is the highest. Core body temperature is also at an optimal level, resulting in increased nerve conductivity, more flexible joints, and improved cardiovascular performance.

All of this information is great, but what does this mean for the average individual? Well, unless you are a marathon runner or body builder, the best time of the day to workout is whenever you have the chance. The body will adapt itself to optimize whatever training schedule you can stick to. The key to making progress is consistency, so if that means you are a 5:30am trainer, or a 5:30pm trainer, stick to it and you will see success.

For more information, see some great articles below:

All About Cortisol

Take the Suspense out of Suspension Training

Have you seen these funny looking yellow straps hanging in the spin room, but never knew what they were? Now’s your chance to find out.

Those yellow straps are TRX suspension training straps. They are a revolutionary new training tool developed by a US Navy Seal to train your total body, using only your body weight. These straps can be used for everything from chest press to squats and anything in between.  Because you are using only yourbody weight, the intensity level can be adjusted for all fitness levels. An added benefit to using these straps to train is an increased calorie burn.

Because of the design of the straps, your stabilizer muscles are working overtime to help perform the exercises. More muscles activated means more calories burned.   Also because there are no weights to adjust, machines to change, or places to move to, your workout will be streamlined and efficient. Less rest equals higher consistent heart rate equals more calories burned.

6 easy exercises for a strong core

Much of the buzz in fitness these days centers around your “core” and having a strong one. Many people I come across think “core strength” means just ab strength or having a 6 pack. But the truth of the matter is having a strong core is more than just abs or having a 6 pack. In fact, many people with the strongest core don’t have 6 packs.


When fitness professionals talk about core strength, it includes more than just your stomach muscles. It includes everything from your hips to your shoulder blades, and everything in between. This encompasses the front, back, and sides of your torso. You may hear some fitness experts refer to it as your “pillar.” So the next time you think of core strength, remember that a balanced routine should include exercises for your shoulder blades, lower back, obliques, stomach, and hips; much much more than just doing crunches.


  1. Plank: Perhaps the best core stability exercise, the plank. This exercise encompasses all the muscles of the front of your torso, shoulder stabilizers, and hip flexors. To set up, lay flat on your stomach with elbows bent underneath your shoulders and toes pulled up towards your shins as far as you can. Maintaining a neutral curve in your spine, push your hips up off of the ground, leaving your elbows down, and hold. Your body should maintain a straight line as your hips come up. Think of balancing a tennis ball between your shoulder blades. If this is too hard, leave your knees on the ground as you push up. The main focus for this exercise is to maintain a neutral spine and straight body lines. Hold this position for 30 seconds.

2. Side Plank: Similar to the plank, the side plank helps to build stability through the olbiques, hips, and shoulder. Start lying on your side, with the feet stacked on top of each other. Place your elbow underneath your shoulder with your hand flat on the ground in front of you. From here, raise your hips into the air, forming a straight line with your body and hold for 30 seconds each side.

3. Glute Bridge or Hip Bridge: This exercise focuses on the muscles of the posterior chain, or back. In this exercise, you will work the hamstrings, glutes, and some lower back. Start lying flat on your back, and place your feet flat on the ground with your heels as close to your butt as you can. From there, keeping a neutral curve in the spine, push your hips into the air by driving through your heels. The key to this exercise is to maintain a natural curve in the spine, and not push your stomach too far towards the ceiling, causing stress on your lower back. Hold the up position for 1 minute.

4. BirdDog: The goal for this exercise is to work the stabilizers of the stomach, obliques, hips, and shoulders. Starting on your hands and knees, line up your hands underneath your shoulders, and knees underneath your hips. Trying to think of that tennis ball balancing between your shoulder blades, extend one arm and the opposite leg as far as you can and pause. Return to start and repeat with the opposite side, always moving opposite arm and leg together. For example, your right arm and left leg would move, then repeat with your leg arm and right leg. Repeat the exercise for 15 repetitions each side

5. Russian Twist: This exercise is great for the obliques, lower back, and hip flexors. Start in a seated position, with your knees bent in front of you and heels on the ground. Staying as tall through the spine as possible, lean your torso back slightly. While maintaining a slight lean back, rotate the shoulders one way and then the other. Continue to rotate back and forth at a controlled pace for 15 reps each side, maintaining the lean back and straight spine the entire time.

6. Seated Leg Lift: This exercise targets the muscles of the hip and lower abs. It may look easy, but it is far from it if done correctly. Start in a seated position with your legs straight in front of you. Hands will be on the ground just outside your pockets, while sitting up as straight as possible. Leaving one leg down and both legs as straight as possible, lift the other leg as high as you can, maintaining an upright posture. Return the leg to the ground, and repeat with the other leg. Repeat this exercise 15 times with each leg.

These 6 exercises are sure to give you a strong core and better stability throughout the torso. Start to work them into your workout routine, performing them on every other day to allow yourself to recover. Feel free to adjust the repetitions as needed to make it harder or easier. Happy stabilizing!


Patrick Scott, MS, CSCS

Sports and Fitness Director

Over-training is real, and here’s how you avoid it.

Many people have probably heard the term “over-training” but don’t really know what it means or what it looks like. Over-training is typically defined as a state where a person is repeatedly stressed from exercise and the rest periods are not adequate to allow for full recovery. Basically, someone has been working out too hard for too long without the proper rest. Over-training can be a very serious problem, and should be identified as early as possible.

The most common symptom of over-training is fatigue. Overall, exhaustive fatigue. This may limit workouts, effect your work day, and alter your sleep patterns. Due to this, people may also become moody, easily irritated, depressed, lose their desire to workout, decreased appetite, and weight loss. People may also experience increased persistent muscle soreness, increased frequency of viral infections, and increased likelihood of injury. Other symptoms include increased cortisol (stress hormone) levels, decreased testosterone, and increased muscle breakdown.

The combination of all of these symptoms can lead to a significant downturn in a person’s quality of life. The good news is over-training is an easily corrected and avoided syndrome. The treatment for over-training is simple rest. However, the longer the over-training has been present, the longer rest period is needed. For some people, a week or two will be sufficient, for others, a month or more may be needed. During this recovery, it is important to try and identify the factors that led to over-training, or else it is extremely likely to happen again.

Unfortunately there is no one “test” that gives a specific diagnosis of over-training. However, there are some things to look for. If you are feeling fatigued all the time, or if your performance has been steadily decreasing of plateauing, it may be because of over-training. In some people, brittle fingernails and hair can be a sign as well. If you have a feeling of being “burnt out” or no desire to exercise (assuming that’s a change from the norm), you may be experiencing over-training syndrome. If you feel like you may be in a state of over-training, don’t be afraid to take some time off. The sooner you can identify over-training, the sooner you will be back to normal! The most important thing here is to make sure you are giving your body enough rest in your exercise routine so you never fall into the over-training cycle.

Rice, Mark (1998) Overtraining Syndrome.  


Got 15 minutes? Then you have time to workout!

With today’s fast paced, high intensity atmosphere, the most common reason people tell me why they can’t work out is they don’t have enough time. I’ve got news for you; everyone has enough time to workout, they just have to make it. There are 168 hours in a week. Take out 56 of those for sleep, and your still left 112 hours per week of time to exercise. In as little as one hour per week, broken up over 4 days, you can start to see results. That’s 15 minutes a day, 4 days a week! Anyone can fit that into their schedule, and here’s the workout to do it with. Perform this circuit every other day during the week, for a total of 4 days per week. Remember to always perform the exercises at your own pace and at your own ability. Take rests when you need to, and push it when you can.

How to perform: After the warm-up exercise, perform each strength exercise in a circuit going from exercise 1 to exercise 4, then repeating. The goal is to get through as many reps as you can on each exercise in 1 minute. Perform the exercises as fast as you can, back to back. That being said, take rest breaks when needed, you’ll start to need fewer and fewer as you get better. For the Tabata finisher, perform the exercise listed for 20 seconds all out, then rest 10 seconds, then repeat 20 seconds, rest 10 seconds, etc….Perform this for 4 rounds or 2 minutes straight.

Total Time: About 15 minutes

What you’ll need: Just your body weight!

Warm-up: Prisoner Squat

Start with feet slightly wider than shoulder width, hands behind head, and elbows wide. Push your hips back, shifting weight onto your heels as you bend the knees into a squat. Pretend you are sitting down to a rocking chair. When you are as deep as you feel comfortable, return to standing.


Exercise #1: Walking Lunges


Reps: 1 minute

Starting from an upright position, take one big step forward. As the foot lands, bend the knees like you are trying to kneel down. Keeping the back flat and knee behind the front toe, come down until the back knee almost touches the ground. Driving off the front leg, return to a standing position. Continue alternating legs, as if you were walking.


Exercise #2: Pushups

Sets: 2

Reps: 1 minute

Starting face down on the ground, position hands underneath your shoulders with elbows rotated in so the front of your elbow faces forward, and hips off the ground so your body makes a straight line from shoulder to ankle. Keeping that straight body line, lower yourself towards the ground until the chest touches, and return to start. If that is too difficult, start with your knees on the ground instead of your toes.


Exercise #3: Superman’s

Sets: 2

Reps: 1 minute

Starting face down, with your hands behind your head and elbows wide, try and lift your chest off of the ground by arching your back up. Squeeze from the glutes and lower back, keeping the elbows as wide as you can. Hold for a 1 sec count at the top, and return to start.


Exercise #4: Squat Jumps

Sets: 2

Reps: 1 minute

Starting with the feet slightly wider than shoulder width, arms at your sides, lower yourself into a squat. Push the hips back, shifting the weight to your heels, and keeping the back flat. When you are as deep as you feel comfortable, throw your arms up as you jump as high as you can. Land with soft knees, right back into your next rep. As best as you can, do not pause in-between reps.


Tabata Finisher #1: Sprint in Place

Sets: 4

Reps: 20 seconds, followed by 10 seconds rest

Staying in place, alternate driving the knees up, as if you were running down the road. Continue to alternate as fast as you can.


Tabata Finisher #2: Squat Thrust

Sets: 4

Reps: 20 seconds, followed by 10 seconds of rest

Start from a standing positon. Drop yourself into a pushup position by brining the hands to the ground and hopping your feet backwards. Keeping the body straight, jump your feet back in and return to standing.


When you are done with the workout, be sure to rehydrate and get some protein in! Water and protein will ensure a quick recovery. Perform this circuit every other day, and start to see results in no time!

Why Interval Training Really is That Good.

One of the biggest crazes to hit the exercise industry in the recent push towards interval and high intensity training, or HIT training. From Crossfit, to group exercise classes, more and more clubs are starting to offer interval training and HIT training classes. But can everyone benefit from this type of training? The answer is yes, and here’s why.

There continues to be a growing number of research studies supporting HIT training and it’s effectiveness over traditional endurance training. One such study, published in 2012 in the Journal of Physiology, proves this point (Gibala et al). This study used two groups of participants. One group performed four to six all out 30 second bike sprints, with a rest of about 4 minutes in between each sprint. They did this 3 times per week for a total training time of about 1.5 hours including the rest intervals. What they found is that this group of individuals made bigger improvements in cardiovascular conditioning over a traditional endurance training group that trained 40-60 minutes 5 times per week. This study does point out, however, that 30 second sprints may not be for everyone. They then studied a group of individuals who would perform ten 60 second sprints at 90% of maximal heart rate, followed by 60 seconds of rest. This training protocol, which is only 20 minutes in total session length, still had similar improvements in cardiovascular conditioning, compared to the traditional endurance group.

A literature review, published in 2014, looked at the benefits of interval training for the elderly (Romero-Arenas, S, 2014). What this review found is that interval resistance training performed in a fashion with minimal rest between exercises, is more effective than traditional weight training when it comes to improvements in oxygen consumption, strength, and functional capacity. This review recommends performing 6-10 exercises twice per week. Each exercise should be performed 1-3 times, at a load of 20 repetition maximum, progressing to a 6 repetition maximum. So basically start lighter and work heavier. Rest between sets should be no longer than 30 seconds (Romero-Arenas, S, 2014).

So what does an interval training program look like? As the first study pointed out, it can be as simple as performing high intensity bouts of cardiovascular training. Or it can involve weight training by performing many different exercise in a circuit fashion and taking little to no rest in between. Interval training has many different forms, and can take many different shapes. The main principle of HIT training is to work really hard for a short period, and rest for a short period, then work really hard again and again and again. Anyone can incorporate this training type into their routine! So start seeing more results in less time and try out some interval training!

  • Patrick Scott, MS, CSCS, Sports and Fitness Director at the JCC of Syracuse.

Gibala, M. J., Little, J. P., MacDonald, M. J., & Hawley, J. A. (2012). Physiological adaptations to low‐volume, high‐intensity interval training in health and disease. The Journal of physiology, 590(5), 1077-1084.

Romero-Arenas, S., Martínez-Pascual, M., & Alcaraz, P. E. (2014). Impact of resistance circuit training on neuromuscular, cardiorespiratory and body composition adaptations in the elderly. Aging and disease, 4(5), 256-263.

The Benefits of Weight Training for All Individuals

For years, people have been hearing in order to lose weight, perform endurance training; to build muscle, weight train. However, no matter what your goals are, strength training is an integral part of a complete and balanced exercise routine.

The American College of Sports Medicine states that inactive adults can expect to experience a 3% to 8% loss in muscle mass per decade, accompanied by an increase in body fat, and decrease in metabolic rate. In just 10 weeks of structured resistance training, people can experience up to a 1.4kg increase in lean body mass, paired with a 1.8kg decrease in fat mass (Westcott, 2012). Some of the other benefits listed include “improved physical performance, movement control, walking speed, functional independence, cognitive abilities and self-esteem.” Strength training can also help bone growth; about 1% to 3% increase according to the ACSM (Westcott, 2012).

According to a study performed by the American Physiological Society, a strength training routine can increase resting metabolic rate up to 7.7% (Pratley, et al. 1994). This study was performed on healthy men, age 50-65 for 16 weeks. After 16 weeks of structured heavy resistance training, body weight did not change, but lean body mass (muscle) increased, fat mass decreased, muscle strength increased 40%, and metabolic rate increased. What does this mean for you? Well since in order to lose a pound of body fat, you need to be in a 3500 calorie deficit. Essentially you need to burn 3500 more calories than you consume. Burning more calories at rest throughout the day, even without changing your diet, will help create this deficit. For each extra pound of muscle mass, you can expect to burn around 50 more calories per day, at rest.

A recent study performed by the Gerontological Society of America found that a generic resistance training routine can be applied to both men and women with similar results (Leenders, 2012). This study used a 6 month resistance training program, 3 days per week, to show that in both men and women, resistance training can prevent and reverse the age related decline in muscle mass. So what does this mean? No matter who you are, strength training can be good for you.

I know a lot of women especially are scared of starting a resistance training routine, because they do not want to get big and bulky. But I can assure you that unless you are strength training consistently 6 days a week for 3-4 hours a day, you will not get big and bulky. What you will see however, are inches change, weight get redistributed, and muscle tone start to develop. To start adding this into your workout routine, start with 2 days a week. Pick one exercise for each body part, and perform for 2 sets of 15 repetitions. For example, in one workout you would perform squats, chest press, seated row, overhead press, bicep curl and tricep extensions two times, 15 repetitions each time. Try to choose a weight that is challenging but not impossible. If you are trying to perform 15 seated rows, and it feels like you could do 30, the weight is a little light. Conversely, if it only feels like you can go for 10, lighten it up a little.

Many people have asked me should you weight train before or after doing endurance training? Personally, I like to do it before. However, there is little to no scientific difference whether you do strength training first, or endurance training first. So my recommendations, switch it up and see what works best for you! Just take that first step towards a more complete exercise routine and get started!

As always, please feel free to leave any comments or questions you may have on the information contained here. Please if you have any ailments, consult your physician before starting any heavy resistance training routine.


Leenders, M. et al. (2013). Elderly men and women benefit equally from prolonged resistance-type exercise training. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 68(7), 769-779

Pratley, R. et al. (1994). Strength training increases resting metabolic rate and norepinephrine levels in healthy 50-to 65pyr old men. Journal of Applied Physiology, 76(1), 133-137

Westcott, W.L. (2012). Resistance training is medicine: effects of strength training on health. Current sports medicine reports, 11(4), 209-216